IMPRINT: Immigrant Professional Integration

IMPRINT Data Map: Integrating Internationally Trained Immigrants and Refugees

This map displays demographic data on college-educated immigrants and refugees in the United States. Data is arranged by state, showing the number of immigrants and refugees who have a bachelor’s degree or higher compared to their U.S.-born counterparts. The map also shows the share of “brain waste” in each state, highlighting states with the most and least underutilized talent.

About the Map:

This map showcases the most up-to-date data highlighting the educational attainment and skill underutilization of immigrant and refugee professionals in the U.S.

It aims to raise awareness to the elevated shares of “brain waste” experienced across U.S. states and encourage advocates, policymakers, and researchers to apply this data to help college-educated immigrants and refugees transition into careers that match their skills and experience.

Special thanks to the Migration Policy Institute for their publicly available dataset which served as a major source of data for this map, and to Jeanne Batalova for her expert guidance.

What else would you like to see?

If there is additional data that you would like to see on our map, please contact us.

We will do our best to incorporate it in our map, send a customized set, or connect you with a partner..

How to Use This Map:

Hover over a state to learn about how educated and/or underutilized its immigrant and refugee residents are.

Notice the dark blue states with the highest shares of brain waste and the greatest need for intervention.

Explore the table below the map by comparing various state data. Use the filter on the top left-hand side of the map to select the state(s) of interest.


Source: Migration Policy Institute tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey (ACS) and Decennial Census. Unless stated otherwise, 2018 data from the one-year ACS file. Data relevant to the foreign born for the following states are from the 2017 one-year ACS file: AK, ID, ME, MT, ND, SD, VT, WV, and WY. For information about ACS definitions, methodology, sampling error, and nonsampling error, click here. Estimates from 1990 and 2000 Decennial Census data as well as ACS microdata are from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas, and Matthew Sobek. Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS) USA: Version 8.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2018.

Note: “College-Educated” refers to individuals who have a Bachelor’s degree or higher (BA or higher) that was earned in the United States and/or abroad. Population includes foreign born and native born individuals 25 years and older. The term “foreign born” is used interchangeably with “immigrants” and refers to individuals who resided in the United States at the time of the American Community Survey who were not U.S. citizens at birth. The foreign born population includes naturalized citizens, lawful permanent residents, refugees and asylees, legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or other temporary visas), as well as individuals residing in the United States without authorization.